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Referencing: Print, Online & Media Resources: Images

APA Style

The APA Style Manual does not give specific information about how to format images in your reference list. Therefore this is an interpretation of the guidance they do provide. Check with your lecturer on requirements before submitting an assignment.

For graphs, charts, maps, drawings, and photographs that appear in the text, the style advises these should be labelled as numbered figures (e.g. Figure 1, Figure 2, Figure 3 etc.) with a Caption.

The Caption is at the bottom of the figure, it includes the figure number, a brief descriptive phrase, any information needed to interpret the figure and then the words "Adapted from..." or "From..." followed by a citation. Include a copyright statement also.

Below are some examples of captions that would appear under your images:

 

Image from a journal article

Caption:

Figure 1. fMRI images showing comparison of a healthy brain with one affected by Alzheimer's disease. Adapted from "Cognitive degeneration associated with early onset Alzheimer's disease," by B. F. Reddin and G. Hall, 2015, Neuropsychological research, 34, p. 55. Copyright 2014 by the Irish Psychological Society.

Image from a book

Caption:

Figure 2. Testing a child for acquisition of the principle of conservation. From "Universal child development," by F. Shields, G. Smock, and H. Kavanagh, 2014, Dublin: PSI Press, p. 42. Copyright 2014 by Pychologcial Society of Ireland. Permission to reprint granted.

Image from a website

Caption:

Figure 3. Chicks imprinting with a dog titled "Imprinting." From Animal behaviour online. (2014, January, 29). Retrieved from www.animalbehaviouronline.ie

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Picture Source

Source: UCD Library

The APA Style does not give specific directions on citing images. This is an interpretation of their rules for where you discuss an image in your text, but do not reproduce it.

Reference: Creator's Lastname, Initital(s). (Year). Title of image [Format of work]. Place of publication: Publisher. Retrieved from URL

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Picture source

Example: FitzGerald, D. (1916). A soldier on duty outside a ruined building [Online photograph]. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.7925/drs1.ucdlib_30688

In-Text-Citation:

  • Creator's Lastname (1916)...
  • (Creator's Lastname, 1916)

Example:

  • This photograph (FitzGerald, 1916) depicts a soldier guarding a building during the rising.
  • FitzGerald's photograph shows a soldier guarding a building during the Easter Rising (1916)

 

Image with no known author

Reference: Title of work [Format of work]. (Year image was created). Place of publication: Publisher. Retrieved from URL (address of web site)

Example: Seal Island [Online photograph]. (2014). Retrieved from http://garnish-island/seals.ie

In-Text-Citation:

  • Title (Year)
  • (Title, Year)

Example:

  • The image show seals nursing their young in Co. Cork ("Seal Island", 2014).
  • The image titled "Seal Island" (2014)...

Image with no known author, title or date

Reference: [Subject and format of work]. Place of publication: Publisher. Retrieved from URL (address of web site)

Example: [Untitled online photograph of Ben Bulben in Co. Sligo]. Retrieved January 6, 2015, from http://www.strandhillscenes.com/

In-Text-Citation:

  • ("First few words of reference," n.d.)

Example:

  • This image of Ben Bulben ("Untitled online photograph of Ben Bulben," n.d.), is largely made up of limestone...

Note: for simplicity, keep the in-text citation in brackets as shown above.

Source: UCD Library

The APA Style does not give specific directions on citing images. This is an interpretation of their rules for where you choose to discuss an image in your text, but do not reproduce it in the text.

Reference: Creator's Lastname, Initital (s). (Year). Title of image [Format of work]. In Author Lastname, Initial(s), Title of book (page image appeared on). Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Arthur, P. (2014). Low stress animal processing plants [Photograph]. In Gilfoyle, M. R., Meat processing plant design (p. 106), Galway: Irish Meat Processors Association.

In-Text-Citation:

  • (Author Lastname, Year)

Example:

  • Cattle handling has been much improved with the design of low stress processing plants (Gilfoyle, 2014, p. 106).

Note: the in-text citation refers to the author of the book where the image appears, not the image creator.

Source: UCD Library

Harvard Style

Reference: Photographer/Creator Last name, Initial(s). (Year) Title of image/photograph. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).

Example: O’Meara, S. (2014) Orchid. Available at: www.theburrenorchidcollection.ie (Accessed 3 February 2014).

In-Text-Citation:

As detailed for Images/Photographs (print).

Source: UCD Library

Reference: Photographer/Creator Last name, Initial(s). (Year) Title of image/photograph [Photograph/Image]. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: O’Meara, S. (2014) Orchid [Photograph]. Co. Clare: Collins Press.

In-Text-Citation:

  • Author(s) Last name (Year)
  • (Authors(s) Last name, Year)

Example:

  • O’Meara (2014) shows a perfect example of the epipactis atrorubens.
  • The velvety red of the epipactis atrorubens is captured beautifully in the above image (O’Meara, 2014)....

Source: UCD Library

MLA Style

Reference: Creator Last name, First name. "Title of image/work." Title of webpage/website. Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher if different from website name), date of website/page creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access.

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Picture source

Example: Luke, Eric. "Hurricane Ophelia may hit Ireland on Monday." The Irish Times, 2017, www.irishtimes.com/news/ireland/irish-news/hurricane-ophelia-may-hit-ireland-with-storm-force-winds-1.3254295. February 27 2018.

In-Text-Citation:

  • (Author Last name)

Example:

Ophelia hit Ireland in October 2017, pounding the coast with terrific force (Luke)

In his photograph, Luke captures the force of the waves pounding the Irish coast during storm Ophelia.....

Source: UCD Library

Reference: Creator last name, First name. Title. Date of composition, medium, Name of holding institution, location of that institution.

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Picture source

Example: Yeats, Jack B. The Liffey Swim. 1923, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin.

In-Text-Citation:

  • (Author Last name)

Example:

  • This painting marks the artist's interest in expressionism (Yeats)….
  • Yeats shows his interest in expressionism….

Source: UCD Library

Reference: Creator last name, First name. Title. Date of composition, medium, Name of holding institution, location of that institution. Name of website, URL/DOI of website. Date Accessed Day Month Year.

Example: Yeats, Jack B. The Liffey Swim. 1923, oil on canvas, National Gallery of Ireland, Dublin. National Gallery of Ireland, www.nationalgallery.ie/liffey-swim-jack-b-yeats. Accessed 27 February 2018

In-Text-Citation:

  • (Author Last name)

Example:

  • This painting marks the artist's interest in expressionism (Yeats)….
  • Yeats shows his interest in expressionism….

Note: If you wanted to provide more information for your reader you could refer to the website in your text, for example "on the nationalgallery.ie site..."

Source: UCD Library

MHRA Style

There are two styles of MHRA referencing - footnotes and bibliography style and author-date style. Please check with your lecturer/tutor which one you must use.

For information on both types of styles please see information here from the Univeristy of St. Andrews, and here from the MHRA style guide online.