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Referencing: Print, Online & Media Resources: Journal Articles

E-journals & DOIs

E-books and electronic journal articles can contain a number which identifies them, called a DOI DOI logo(Digital Object Identifier). A DOI is a string of numbers, letters and symbols used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. A DOI will help your reader easily locate a document from your citation. It is like a PPS number for the article you’re citing — it will always refer to that article, and only that one (source: UIC). Picture source: Wiki

A DOI is not the same as an ISBN, but it does the same thing - it is a unique number assigned to a piece of work that allows you to find the work even if the work moves databases or websites, etc. The DOI is a hyperlink which can take you to the article in one click. 

If you know the DOI it is best to include it in your references/bibliography so that you know you're linking directly to the correct article, and to make it easy for the reader to check the source. 



APA Style

Reference: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal title, volume number(Issue number), page numbers.

Example: Lum, J. A. G., & Bleses, D. (2012). Declarative and procedural memory in Danish speaking children with specific language impairment. Journal of Communication Disorders, 45(1), 46-58.


  • Author(s) Last name (year)
  • (Author(s) Last name year)


  • Lum and Bleses (2012) took a different approach…
  • Another approach (Lum & Bleses, 2012) shows that…

Note: For journal articles only include the issue number when each issue is individually paginated.

Articles with multiple authors follow the same pattern. 

Source: UCD Library

Harvard Style

Reference: Author Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Article title', Journal Title, Volume(Issue), pp. page numbers.  

Example: Tovey, H. (2002) 'Risk, morality, and the sociology of animals - reflections of the foot and mouth outbreak in Ireland', Irish Journal of Sociology, 11(1), pp. 23-42.


  • Author(s) Last name (Year)
  • (Author(s) Last name, Year)


  • Tovey (2002) argues….
  • It has been argued (Tovey, 2002)….

Source: UCD Library

MLA Style

Reference: First author(s) Last name, First name and next author(s) First name Last name. "Title of Article." Title of Journal, vol. Volume, no., Year, pp. page range.

Example: Mann, Susan. "Myths of Asian Womanhood." Journal of Asian Studies, vol. 59, 2000, pp. 835-62. 


  • (Author(s) Last name Page no)
  • (Page no)


  • Another author (Mann 850) argues….
  • Mann (850) argues….

Source: UCD Library

MHRA Style

There are two styles of MHRA referencing - footnotes and bibliography style and author-date style. Please check with your lecturer/tutor which one you must use.

For information on both types of styles please see information here from the Univeristy of St. Andrews, and here from the MHRA style guide online.