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Referencing: Print, Online & Media Resources: E-Journal Articles

E-journals & DOIs

E-books and electronic journal articles can contain a number which identifies them, called a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI is a string of numbers, letters and symbols used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. A DOI will help your reader easily locate a document from your citation. It is like a PPS number for the article you’re citing — it will always refer to that article, and only that one (source: UIC).

A DOI is not the same as an ISBN, but it does the same thing - it is a unique number assigned to a piece of work that allows you to find the work even if the work moves databases or websites, etc. The DOI is a hyperlink which can take you to the article in one click. 

If you know the DOI it is best to include it in your references/bibliography so that you know you're linking directly to the correct article, and to make it easy for the reader to check the source. If there is no DOI for an article, use the URL for the journal homepage or the URL for the library database where you found the article.

APA Style

Reference: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal title, Volume, Page numbers. DOI/URL

Example: Hayes, B. C., McAllister, I., & Dowds, L. (2007). Integrated Education, Intergroup Relations, and Political Identities in Northern Ireland. Social Problems, 54, 454-482. doi: 10.1525/sp.2007.54.4.454.


  • Author(s) Last name (Year)
  • (Author(s) Last name Year)


  • Hayes et al. (2007) show...
  • A different approach (Hayes et al., 2007) shows….

Note: if no DOI is available insert “Retrieved from URL”.

Articles with multiple authors follow the same pattern. 

Source: UCD Library

Harvard Style

Reference: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title’, Journal Title, Volume(Issue), pp. page numbers. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).

Example: Hawke, J., Wadsworth, S., & DeFries, J. (2006) ‘Genetic influences on reading difficulties in boys and girls: the Colorado twin study’, Dyslexia, 12(1), pp. 21-29 . Available at: (Accessed 10 February 2009).


  • Author(s) Last name (Year)
  • (Author(s) Last name, Year)


  • Hawke, Wadsworth and DeFries (2006) argue ….
  • Others have shown (Hawke, Wadsworth and DeFries, 2006).... 

Source: UCD Library

MLA Style

Reference: First author's Last name, First name and next author(s) First name Last name. "Title of Article." Journal Title, vol. Volume, no., Year, pp. Page range. Database, Location/Link

Example: Faris, Marc. “That Chicago Sound: Playing with (Local) Identity in Underground Rock.” Popular Music & Society, vol. 27, 2004, pp. 429-454. Taylor & Francis Online, doi: 10.1080/0300776042000264658.


  • (Author's Last name Page no)
  • (Page no)


  • Exploring this topic (Faris 440)….
  • Faris (440) highlights the role….

Source: UCD Library

MHRA Style

There are two styles of MHRA referencing - footnotes and bibliography style and author-date style. Please check with your lecturer/tutor which one you must use.

For information on both types of styles please see information here from the Univeristy of St. Andrews, and here from the MHRA style guide online.