E-books and electronic journal articles can contain a number which identifies them, called a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). A DOI is a string of numbers, letters and symbols used to permanently identify an article or document and link to it on the web. A DOI will help your reader easily locate a document from your citation. It is like a PPS number for the article you’re citing — it will always refer to that article, and only that one (source: UIC).
A DOI is not the same as an ISBN, but it does the same thing - it is a unique number assigned to a piece of work that allows you to find the work even if the work moves databases or websites, etc. The DOI is a hyperlink which can take you to the article in one click.
If you know the DOI it is best to include it in your references/bibliography so that you know you're linking directly to the correct article, and to make it easy for the reader to check the source. If there is no DOI for an article, use the URL for the journal homepage or the URL for the library database where you found the article.
Reference: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year). Article title. Journal title, Volume, Page numbers. DOI/URL
Example: Hayes, B. C., McAllister, I., & Dowds, L. (2007). Integrated Education, Intergroup Relations, and Political Identities in Northern Ireland. Social Problems, 54, 454-482. doi: 10.1525/sp.2007.54.4.454.
Note: if no DOI is available insert “Retrieved from URL”.
Articles with multiple authors follow the same pattern.
Reference: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year) ‘Article title’, Journal Title, Volume(Issue), pp. page numbers. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).
Example: Hawke, J., Wadsworth, S., & DeFries, J. (2006) ‘Genetic influences on reading difficulties in boys and girls: the Colorado twin study’, Dyslexia, 12(1), pp. 21-29 . Available at: http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/fulltext/112098736/PDFSTART (Accessed 10 February 2009).
Reference: First author's Last name, First name and next author(s) First name Last name. "Title of Article." Journal Title, vol. Volume, no., Year, pp. Page range. Database, Location/Link
Example: Faris, Marc. “That Chicago Sound: Playing with (Local) Identity in Underground Rock.” Popular Music & Society, vol. 27, 2004, pp. 429-454. Taylor & Francis Online, doi: 10.1080/0300776042000264658.
There are two styles of MHRA referencing - footnotes and bibliography style and author-date style. Please check with your lecturer/tutor which one you must use.