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Referencing: Print, Online & Media Resources: Films, Television, Online Videos

APA Style

Reference:  Producer(s) Last name, Initials (Producer) & Director(s) Last name Initials. (Year). Title [Motion picture]. Place of production: Production company.

Example: Bender, L.A. (Producer) & Tarantino, Q. A (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion picture]. United States: Miramax Films.


  • Director surname (Year)
  • (Director’s surname, year)


  • In this film Tarantino (1994) demonstrates...
  • In this film (Tarantino, 1994) he sought to…

Source: UCD Library

  • Author, A.A. (year, month day). Title of video [Video]. YouTube. URL http://xxxxx
    • Use the name of the account that uploaded the video as the author.
    • Provide the specific date on which the video was uploaded. 
    • Italicize the title of the video.
    • Include the description “[Video]” in square brackets after the title.
    • Provide the site name (YouTube) and URL of the video.

  • Example: 
    • Harvard University. (2019, August 28). Soft robotic gripper for jellyfish [Video]. YouTube.
    • Parenthetical citation: (Harvard University, 2019) 
    • Narrative citation: Harvard University (2019)

Cite a YouTube channel:

  • Author, A.A. (n.d.). Title of channel [YouTube channel]. Retrieved month day, year, from URL http://xxxx
    • YouTube channel pages begin on the “Home” tab by default. If you want to cite one of the other tabs (e.g., “Videos,” “Playlists”), use the name of that tab rather than “Home” in the title element of the reference (as in the Walker example below). 
    • Italicize the title of the channel. 
    • Include the description “[YouTube channel]” in square brackets after the title. 
    • Provide a retrieval date, because the content is designed to change over time and is not archived.
  • Examples:
    • APA Publishing Training. (n.d.). Home [YouTube channel]. Retrieved February 20, 2020, from
    • Walker, A. (n.d.). Playlists [YouTube channel]. YouTube. Retrieved October 8, 2019, from
    • Parenthetical citation: (APA Publishing Training, n.d.; Walker, n.d.)
    • Narrative citation: APA Publishing Training (n.d.) and Walker (n.d.)

Source: Northeast WI Technical College

Harvard Style

Reference: Title of film (Year of distribution) Director [Format]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

Example: The lives of others (2007) Florien Henckel von Donnersmarck [DVD]. Santa Monica: Lionsgate.


  • Title of film, Year
  • (Title of film, Year)


  • The portrait shown in The Lives of Others (2007)….
  • East Germany was the subject of a recent successful movie (The Lives of Others, 2007)….

Source: UCD Library

Reference: Name of person posting video (Year video posted) Title of film or programme. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).

Example: APintTurtle (2008) Zig & Zag - Christmas crises. Available at: (Accessed 12 December 2014).


  • Poster's Last name (Year)
  • (Poster's Last name, Year)


  • Podge tries to foil Christmas in this Christmas special (APintTurtle, 2008)...
  • APintTurtle's (2008) posted a version of 'Zig & Zag - Christmas Crises'...

Source: UCD Library

MLA Style

Reference: Title. Directed by First name Last name of director, Performance by Key Performers' First Name Last Name, Distributor, Release date. 

Example: A Street Cat Named Bob. Directed by Roger Spottiswoode, Performed by Bob,  Luke Treadaway and  Ruta Gedmintas, Polygram, Sony, 2016.  


  • (Title of film)


  • Spottiswoode’s 2016 film (A Street Cat Named Bob) displayed how….

Note: If you want to highlight a key particular performer, start the citation with their name, then their title.

Gedmintas, Ruta, performer. A Street Cat Named Bob. Sony, 2016. 

Source: UCD Library

Reference: "Title" episode or segment. Title of programme or series. Additional info. e.g. director/narrator/performer etc. Name of network. Call letters and city of local station (if any). Broadcast date. 

Example: "The Villain." Faulks on Fiction. Narrated by Sebastian Faulks, BBC 2, 15 Jul., 2011. 


  • ("Title")


  • Faulks traces a trajectory from Richardson's Lovelace to recent examples such as Heller's Barbara Covett ("The Villain").

Note: If you are highlighting a particular contributor's work to the production, start the reference with their name.

Faulks, Sebastian, narrator. "The Villain." Faulks on Fiction. BBC 2, 15 Jul., 2011.

Source: UCD Library

If the creator's name is the same as the uploader's name, the basic MLA format is:

  • Author. Title of VideoTitle of Web Site, Publication Date, URL.
  • Example:
    • sayerb123. Husky Puppy Talking Saying 'I Love You'YouTube, 30 Dec. 2009,

If the creator's name is different than the uploader's name, the basic MLA format is:

  • Author. Title of VideoTitle of Web Site, uploaded by Name, Publication Date, URL.
  • Example:
    • McGonigal, Jane. Gaming and Productivity. YouTube, uploaded by Big Think, 3 July 2012,

Source: Northeast WI Technical College

MHRA Style

There are two styles of MHRA referencing - footnotes and bibliography style and author-date style. Please check with your lecturer/tutor which one you must use.

For information on both types of styles please see information here from the Univeristy of St. Andrews, and here from the MHRA style guide online.