Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Referencing: Print, Online & Media Resources: Social Media

APA Style

Reference: Author Last name, Initials. [screen name]. (Year, Month Day). Title (up to the first 40 words). [Tweet]. Retrieved from URL

Example: Gaffney, M. [maureengaffney]. (2015, May 23). When we make decisions based on fear we feel diminished. Decisions based on generosity make us more ourselves. [Tweet]. Retrieved from https://twitter.com/maureengaffney

In-Text-Citation: 

  • (Author Last name, Year)

Example:

  • Maureen Gaffney refers to the negative effects of fear in the decision making process (2015).

Source: UCD Library

ReferenceAuthor, A. A. [@username]. (Year, Month Day). Content of the post up to the first 20 words. [description of audiovisuals]. Site Name. Retrieved [date] from [URL].

In-text citation: (Surname, date)

Example:

Fox, M. J. [@realmikejfox]. (2018, June 5). It takes < than a min to learn how to save a life. Watch the video at handsonly.nyc #ICanSaveALife with #HandsOnlyCPR [Photograph]. Retrieved 6th July 2019 from Instagram. https://www.instagram.com/p/BjppDLDBxRF/

EarthPix. [@earthpix]. (2019, January 8). Snow train ride in Lago Bianco Switzerland

Reference: Author Screen name. (Year, Month, Day). Post or if too long, shortened section. [Facebook update]. Retrieved from URL

Example: Leo Varadkar. (2014, December 2). HIQUA report can be catalyst for further improvement of ambulance services. [Facebook update]. Retrieved from http://leovaradkar.ie/2014/12/hiqa-report-can-be-catalyst-for-further-improvement-of-ambulance-services-varadkar/

In-Text-Citation:

  • (Author Screen name, Year)

Example:

  • Leo Varadkar, Minister for Health, noted the HIQUA report on the ambulance service can be used to improve the service. (Leo Varadkar, 2014).

Source: UCD Library

Reference: Author Last name, Initials. (Year, Month Day). Title of post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL

Example: Whelan, K. (2013, November 29). The ECB’s secret letter to Ireland: still secret [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://karlwhelan.com/blog/?p=969

In-Text-Citation:

  • Author(s) Last name (year)
  • (Author(s) Last name, year)                                   

Example:

  • Whelan (2013) showed that....
  • In another post (Whelan, 2013) it was argued….

Note: titles for items in online communities (e.g. blogs, newsgroups, forums) are not italicized. If the author’s name is not available, provide the screen name in the text or reference list.

Source: UCD Library

Harvard Style

Reference: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Year of post) [Twitter] Day Month of tweet. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).
 

Example: UCD School of Archaeology (2014) [Twitter] 23 October. Available at: https://twitter.com/ucdarchaeology/status/525263801537404930 (Accessed 24 June 2015).

In-Text-Citation:

  • Author(s) Last name (Year)
  • (Authors(s) Last name, Year)

Example:

  • UCD School of Archaeology (2014) reports that lactose intolerance ....
  • It has been found that after 5,000 year of agriculture, early Europeans remained intolerant to lactose (UCD School of Archaeology, 2014).

Note: date of post is used for in-text citation.

Source: UCD Library

Reference: Surname, INITIAL(S) (or organisation). Year. Title of post. [Instagram]. Date posted. [Date accessed]. Available from: URL

In-text citation: 

(Surname, date)

If the post does not have a title, you can use the text of the post as a title. If a post is longer than 20 words, write the first 20 words and then use […] to indicate that extra words have been omitted.

Example: 

Obama, B. 2016. Checkups are covered under Obamacare. Check out your options and #GetCovered today. Link in profile. [Instagram]. 25 January. [Accessed 5 April 2019]. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/BA-cPpgmuR1/

@itsnicethat. 2018. In @dantezaballa’s film, My Trip to Japan, the animator creates a morphing visual voyage which transitions through memories from Tokyo […]. [Instagram]. 17 December. [Accessed 10 June 2019]. Available from: https://www.instagram.com/p/BrfNHUtBhlg/

Example:

Obama (2016) says...

(Obama, 2016)

 

Source:University of Leeds

Reference: Author Last name, Initials. (Year page/post published) Title of page [Facebook] Day Month of post. Available at: url of post (Accessed Day Month Year).


Example: DSPCA (2017) Dublin SPCA [Facebook] 24 November. Available at: https://www.facebook.com/dspca (Accessed 24 November 2017).

In-Text-Citation:

  • Author(s) Last name (Year)
  • (Author(s) Last name Year)

Example:

  • DSPCA (2017) reported on there being a number of kittens …
  • It was reported that the DSPCA has kittens for potential adoption (DSPCA, 2017).

Note: if no author is available, start with the title in italics and use the title (in italics) with the year for your in-text citation.

 

Source: UCD Library 

Reference: Author(s) Last name, First name. (Year site published/Last updated) ‘Title of message’, Title of internet site, Day Month of posted message. Available at: URL (Accessed Day Month Year).

Example: O’Connor, John (2010) ‘Global warming and the future’, Jane Murphy blog, 14 January. Available at: http://janemurphyblog.com/blogs/archive/2010/01/14/115/aspx (Accessed 13 April 2010).

In-Text-Citation:

  • Author(s) Last name (Year)
  • (Author(s)  Last name, Year)

Example:

  • O’Connor (2010) proposed….
  • It was proposed elsewhere (O’Connor, 2010)

Source: UCD Library

MHRA Style

There are two styles of MHRA referencing - footnotes/bibliography style and author/date style. This guide covers notes/bibliography style. For more information on both types of styles please see information here from the Univeristy of St. Andrews, and here from the MHRA style guide online. 

Right click + open image in new tab to see a larger version. 

Source: Swansea University

MLA Style

Reference: Twitter handle."Entire text of tweet." Twitter, Day Month Year, time, Location/link.

Example: @alaindebotton. "One kind of good book should leave you asking: how did the author know that about me?" Twitter, 27 Apr 2015, 5:51 p.m., twitter.com/alaindebotton/status/582270329835393025.

In-Text-Citation: 

  • (Author Last name)

Example:

  • In a recent tweet, Alain de Botton suggests that certain good books should prompt one to ask: "How did the author know that about me?"
  • Often a good book will make the reader wonder: "How did the author know that about me?" (De Botton) 

Source: UCD Library

Reference: Lastname, Firstname [or single username]. (handle). "First several words of Instagram post (if any)..." Instagram, Day month year posted, URL.

In-text citation: (Surname/username, date)

Example: 

libechillbro. "Root beer floats are in honor of National Library Week…" Instagram, 18 Apr 2016, instagram.com/p/5pjGjvjTH6/.

Source: Carleton Gould Library

Example:

(librechillbro, 2016)

 

Source: Charleston Gould Library

Reference: Poster Last Name, First Name (or User name). "Title of Post." Type of Post. Facebook Page Owner. Facebook, Date Posted, Location/Link.

Example: UCD Students' Union. "We support the call tonight to #Take200 vulnerable young people from devastating scenes in an at breaking-point Calais camp. This is happening, we have to act - #NotOnOurWatch." Facebook Students' Union of Ireland. Facebook, 3rd Nov. 2016, www.facebook.com/plugins/2F10153784831161910.

In-Text-Citation: 

  • (Poster Last Name)

Example: 

  • Students lobby to help children stranded in the infamous Zoo camp at Calais (UCD Students' Union).

Source: UCD Library

Reference: Author's Last name, First name (if available). “Posting Title.” Website/Blog Title, Day Month Year of Publication, Location/Link. 

Example: Lonergan, Patrick. “New Book on Irish Performance.” Scenes from the Bigger Picture, 13 Feb. 2013, patricklonergan.wordpress.com/2015/02/13/new-book-on-irish-performance/. 

In-Text-Citation: 

  • (Author Last name)

Example: 

  • According to another source (Lonergan)....

Source: UCD Library

Chicago Style - NOTE

Please note that there are two style of Chicago referencing: author/date style and notes/bibliography style. This guide covers notes/bibliography style. 

Chicago Style

In-Text Citation: Use a superscript number (like this: ¹) in the text at the place where you are indicating that you are citing from a source.

Footnote: #Author First Name Last Name (@Twitter handle), Twitter post, Month day, year, time. Accessed Month day, Year. URL.

Bibliography: Author Last Name, First Name (@Twitter handle), Twitter post, Month day, year, time. Accessed Month day, Year. URL.

Examples: 

In-Text Citation: The American talk radio show Michael Medved asked in a tweet whether President Obama would attend a demonstration in support of the police force.¹

Footnote: 1. Michael Medved (@MedvedSHOW), Twitter post, Dec 21 2014, 9:34a.m. Accessed March 10, 2015. https://twitter.com/MedvedSHOW

NOTE: When a source is referenced more than once on the same page a shortened form of footnote is used after the first reference, as seen below.

Second footnote: Michael Medved,  Dec 21, 2014. 

Bibliography: Medved, Michael (@MedvedSHOW), Twitter post, Dec 21, 2014, 9:34a.m., accessed March 10, 2015. https://twitter.com/MedvedSHOW

Source: UCD Library

In-Text Citation: Use a superscript number (like this: ¹) in the text at the place where you are indicating that you are citing from a source.

Footnote: #. Author's Facebook Page. Last modified month day, year. Accessed Month day, Year. URL.

Bibliography: Name of Facebook page, accessed Month day, year, URL

Examples: 

In-Text Citation: Economist David McWiliams said on his Facebook page that FDR-style economics would not work in Ireland.¹

Footnote:1. David McWilliams's Facebook Page. Last modified March 9, 2015. Accessed March 11, 2015. https://www.facebook.com/davidmcw?fref=ts

NOTE: When a source is referenced more than once on the same page a shortened form of footnote is used after the first reference, as seen below.

Second footnote: McWilliams, 2015

Bibliography: David McWilliams's Facebook page. Accessed 11 March, 2015, https://www.facebook.com/davidmcw?fref=ts

Source: UCD Library

In-Text Citation: Use a superscript number (like this: ¹) in the text at the place where you are indicating that you are citing from a source.

Footnote Lastname, Firstname (or username is real name is not known) (@username). Year. "Up to 160 characters of photo caption." Instagram photo, Month day, year posted. URL.

Bibliography: Lastname, Firstname (or username is real name is not known) (@username). Year. "Full text of Instagram post." Instagram photo, Month day, year posted. URL.

Examples: 

In-Text Citation: Root beer floats have been talked about in relation to National Library week¹. 

Footnote: ¹Penguin, Oscar (@libechillbro). 2016. "Root beer floats are in honor of National Library Week, and we'll be handing them out from 2:30-4:30 this afternoon." Instagram photo, April 18, 2016. https://instagram.com/p/5pjGjvjTH6/

NOTE: When a source is referenced more than once on the same page a shortened form of footnote is used after the first reference, as seen below.

Second footnote: Penguin, Oscar, 2016.

Bibliography: Penguin, Oscar (@libechillbro). 2016. "Root beer floats are in honor of National Library Week, and we'll be handing them out from 2:30-4:30 this afternoon." Instagram photo, April 18, 2016. https://instagram.com/p/5pjGjvjTH6/

Source: Gould Library

In-Text Citation: Use a superscript number (like this: ¹) in the text at the place where you are indicating that you are citing from a source.

Footnote: #. Author(s) First name Last name, "Title of Post," Name of Blog, Month Day, Year, URL.

Bibliography: n/a Note: Blog entries and blog comments are generally cited only as notes.

Examples: 

In-Text CitationItalian economist and former member of the Executive Board of the European Central Bank Lorenzo Bini Smaghi considers that Basel II has had little long-term effect on the Irish economy.²

Footnote: 11. Brendan Walsh, "Lorenzo Bini Smaghi on the Impact of Basel III," Irish Economy, April 2, 2011, http://www.irisheconomy.ie/index.php/2011/04/02/lorenzo-bini-smaghi-on-the-impact-of-basel-iii/.

NOTE: When a source is referenced more than once on the same page a shortened form of footnote is used after the first reference, as seen below.

Second footnote:

Bibliography: n/a Note: Blog entries and blog comments are generally cited only as notes.

Source: UCD Library