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Referencing: Print, Online & Media Resources: Music

APA Style

Reference: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by name of recording artist if different]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: mp3, CD, record, etc.]. Location: Label. (Date of song if different from song copyright date)

Example: Brown, P., & Rans, R. (1984). Material Girl [Recorded by Madonna]. On Like a virgin [CD]. New York, NY: Sire Records.


  • Author(s) Last name (year)
  • (Author(s) Last name, year)      


  • Madonna sings "Material Girl" (Brown & Rans, 1984)...
  • Madonna sings the Brown and Rand (1984) song "Material Girl"...

Source: UCD Library

Harvard Style

Reference: Composer last name, Initials. (Year) Title of score. Notes. Place of publication: Publisher.


Handel, G. F. (1912) Alexander's feast : ode. Edited, and the organ or pianoforte accompaniment arranged by Vincent Novello. London: Novello.


  • (Author Last name, Year)
  • Author Last name (Year)...


  • Handel's score is beautifully arranged by Vincent Novello (Handel, 1912)...

Source: UCD Library

Reference: Artist Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Title of track', Title of Album [CD] or [Vinyl]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

Example: Armstrong, L. (1987) 'Put 'em down blues', Hot five & hot seven : 1925-1928 [CD]. France: Joker Tonverlag AG.


  • Artist Last name (Year)
  • (Artist Last name, Year)


  • In his track 'Put 'em down blues' Armstrong (1987)....
  • 'Put 'em down blues' (Armstrong, 1987) is typical of the sound this artist can create with his ensembles...

Note: If referring to a whole album, cite as above, simply leaving out the 'Title track' element of the reference.

Source: UCD Library

MLA Style

Capitalize abbreviations No. and Op. in the title. Include the date of composition (it can be a range of years) after the title of the piece. Include medium of publication. If the score is part of a series, include the information about the series after the medium of publication. If there is no publisher listed, you can write N.p. No date, n.d.

Prokofiev, Sergey. Symphonie Classique: Op. 25. 1916-1917. London: Boosey, 1942. Print.

Score with no date of publication:

Prokofieff, Sergei. Symphony No. 1: Classical Symphony, Op. 25. 1916-1917. Michigan: Luck’s Music, n.d. Print.

Source: Carnegie Mellon University Libraries

Write the title of the piece as it appears on the CD cover.

Prokofiev, Sergey. Symphony No. 1 in D, Op. 25 'Classical.'  Perf. Scottish National Orchestra. Cond. Neeme Järvi. Chandos, 1985. CD.

Source: Carnegie Mellon University Libraries

No collective title for the recording:

Prokofiev, Sergey. Classical Symphony, Op. 25. Perf. Philadelphia Orchestra. Cond. Eugene Ormandy. Columbia, 1973. LP.

Collective Title:

Prokofiev, Sergey. “Classical Symphony in D Major, Op. 25.” All the Works for Orchestra. Perf. Orchestre national de l'ORTF, Paris. Cond. Jean Martinon. Vox, 1972. LP.

Source: Carnegie Mellon University Libraries

MHRA Style

There are two styles of MHRA referencing - footnotes and bibliography style and author-date style. Please check with your lecturer/tutor which one you must use.

For information on both types of styles please see information here from the Univeristy of St. Andrews, and here from the MHRA style guide online.