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Referencing: Print, Online & Media Resources: Music

APA Style

Reference: Author(s) Last name, Initials. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by name of recording artist if different]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: mp3, CD, record, etc.]. Location: Label. (Date of song if different from song copyright date)

Example: Brown, P., & Rans, R. (1984). Material Girl [Recorded by Madonna]. On Like a virgin [CD]. New York, NY: Sire Records.


  • Author(s) Last name (year)
  • (Author(s) Last name, year)      


  • Madonna sings "Material Girl" (Brown & Rans, 1984)...
  • Madonna sings the Brown and Rand (1984) song "Material Girl"...

Source: UCD Library

Harvard Style

Reference: Composer last name, Initials. (Year) Title of score. Notes. Place of publication: Publisher.


Handel, G. F. (1912) Alexander's feast : ode. Edited, and the organ or pianoforte accompaniment arranged by Vincent Novello. London: Novello.


  • (Author Last name, Year)
  • Author Last name (Year)...


  • Handel's score is beautifully arranged by Vincent Novello (Handel, 1912)...

Source: UCD Library

Reference: Artist Last name, Initials. (Year) 'Title of track', Title of Album [CD] or [Vinyl]. Place of distribution: Distribution company.

Example: Armstrong, L. (1987) 'Put 'em down blues', Hot five & hot seven : 1925-1928 [CD]. France: Joker Tonverlag AG.


  • Artist Last name (Year)
  • (Artist Last name, Year)


  • In his track 'Put 'em down blues' Armstrong (1987)....
  • 'Put 'em down blues' (Armstrong, 1987) is typical of the sound this artist can create with his ensembles...

Note: If referring to a whole album, cite as above, simply leaving out the 'Title track' element of the reference.

Source: UCD Library

MHRA Style

There are two styles of MHRA referencing - footnotes/bibliography style and author/date style. This guide covers notes/bibliography style. For more information on both types of styles please see information here from the Univeristy of St. Andrews, and here from the MHRA style guide online. 

Right click + open image in new tab to see a larger version. 

Source: Swansea University

MLA Style

Capitalize abbreviations No. and Op. in the title. Include the date of composition (it can be a range of years) after the title of the piece. Include medium of publication. If the score is part of a series, include the information about the series after the medium of publication. If there is no publisher listed, you can write N.p. No date, n.d.

Prokofiev, Sergey. Symphonie Classique: Op. 25. 1916-1917. London: Boosey, 1942. Print.

Score with no date of publication:

Prokofieff, Sergei. Symphony No. 1: Classical Symphony, Op. 25. 1916-1917. Michigan: Luck’s Music, n.d. Print.

Source: Carnegie Mellon University Libraries

Write the title of the piece as it appears on the CD cover.

Prokofiev, Sergey. Symphony No. 1 in D, Op. 25 'Classical.'  Perf. Scottish National Orchestra. Cond. Neeme Järvi. Chandos, 1985. CD.

Source: Carnegie Mellon University Libraries

No collective title for the recording:

Prokofiev, Sergey. Classical Symphony, Op. 25. Perf. Philadelphia Orchestra. Cond. Eugene Ormandy. Columbia, 1973. LP.

Collective Title:

Prokofiev, Sergey. “Classical Symphony in D Major, Op. 25.” All the Works for Orchestra. Perf. Orchestre national de l'ORTF, Paris. Cond. Jean Martinon. Vox, 1972. LP.

Source: Carnegie Mellon University Libraries

Chicago Style - NOTE

Please note that there are two style of Chicago referencing: author/date style and notes/bibliography style. This guide covers notes/bibliography style. 

Chicago Style

  • To cite a recording, locate as much of the following information as possible: name of the composer and performer, title or number identifying the piece, date it was recorded, copyright date (if different from the year of the recording), name of the recording company, and medium. Also include an access date and URL, if you found it online. 
  • Album titles should be in italics; all other titles should be in quotation marks, except for musical works referred to by genre (e.g. Symphony no. 5).

Footnote example:

57. Nina Simone, "Balm in Gilead," recorded January 1978, on Baltimore, CTI, streaming audio, accessed December 10, 2017,

Bibliography example:

Rubinstein, Artur. The Chopin Collection. Recorded 1946, 1958-67. RCA Victor/BMG 60822-2-RG, 1991. CD.

Source: AUT Library