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Referencing: Print, Online & Media Resources: Plays

APA Style

References. Director, Initial(s) (Director). (Year, Month Day). Title of the performance. By Author of the Play. Place: Name of the Theatre.


  • Comyn, A. (Director). (2015, October 6). Dancing at Lughnasa. By Brian Friel. Dublin: Gaiety Theatre

Use the director’s name when referring to the performance in the body of the text.


  • The performance (Comyn, 2015) celebrates the 25th anniversary of the play.

Source: DCU

Harvard Style

Reference: Title of performance (Year performed) by playwright. Directed by Forename Surname [Venue, City of performance. Date of performance.]


  • Twelfth Night  (2013) by Filter.  Directed by Sean Holmes. [Cast Theatre, Doncaster. 18 October].

In-text citation:

  • (Title, date)


  • The Shakespearean stage has not seen such a raucous adaptation since the Sixteenth Century (Twelfth Night, 2013).

Source: Doncaster College

MHRA Style

There are two styles of MHRA referencing - footnotes/bibliography style and author/date style. This guide covers notes/bibliography style. For more information on both types of styles please see information here from the Univeristy of St. Andrews, and here from the MHRA style guide online. 

MHRA Style

Required Information

Authors First Name and Last Name, Title of Play, ed. by Editors First Name and Last Name (if appropriate), Edition name/number (if appropriate) (Place of Publication, Publisher, Date), Act (use roman numerals). scene (use Arabic numbers). line (use Arabic numbers).

First Footnote

 1 William Shakespeare, Hamlet, ed. by Cyrus Hoy, A Norton Critical Edition, 2nd edn (New York: Norton, 1992),     V. 2. 4-5.

Second and subsequent  footnotes

 2 Hamlet, V. 2. 341.

Shakespeare, William, Hamlet, ed. by Cyrus Hoy, A Norton Critical Edition, 2nd ed. (New York: Norton, 1992).

Source: Monash University

Required Information

Authors First Name and Last Name, 'Title of Play', Title of Website, ed. by Editors First Name and Last Name (if appropriate), Act (use roman numerals). scene (use Arabic numbers). line (use Arabic numbers). <URL> [Accessed date]

First Footnote

1 William Shakespeare, 'Romeo and Juliet', The Complete Works of William Shakespeare, created by Jeremy Hilton, II. 2. 3. <> [3 June, 2014]

Second and subsequent  footnotes

2 'Romeo and Juliet'II. 2. 31.

 Shakespeare, William,  Romeo and Juliet, created by Jeremy Hilton, II. 2.3. <> [3 June 2014]

Source: Monash University

MLA Style

Reference: Author Last name, First name. Title. Publisher, Year of Publication. 

Example: Shakespeare, William, and Ann Thompson. The Taming of the Shrew. Cambridge University Press,1984.


  • (Author Last name Page no)
  • (Page no)


  • In this section of the play gender is addressed (Shakespeare and Thompson 80)….
  • Shakespeare has portrayed (80)….

Note: In the full reference/Works Cited section, list the author's name as it appears in the work, i.e. last name and full first name or last name and initials.

Source: UCD Library

Chicago Style - NOTE

Please note that there are two style of Chicago referencing: author/date style and notes/bibliography style. This guide covers notes/bibliography style. 

Chicago Style

Live performances

  • Cite live theatrical, artistic, musical or dance performances in your notes only, unless the work is central to your argument, in which case you can include it in your bibiliography.
  • Include the title of the work, the creator, any key performers and an indication of their roles, the venue, location, and date of the performance.
  • Italicise the titles of plays, live performance art and long musical works, but enter titles of shorter works in roman type, in quotation marks. 
  • If the citation is focused on an individual's performance, list that person's name and role before the title of the work. 

Footnote examples:

44. Matilda: The Musical, script by Dennis Kelly, music and lyrics by Tim Minchin, based on the book by Roald Dahl, Civic Theatre, Auckland, September 28, 2017.

45. 21 Movements, live response by Alexa Wilson to photographs by Nicholas Watt, Basement Theatre, Auckland, March 11, 2017.

46. Caitlin Morris, cellist, "Double Cello Concerto," by Antonio Vivaldi, ASB Theatre Marlborough, Nelson, November 4, 2017.


If the play is in a book, then follow the guidelines for print or ebooks. 

Source: AUT New Zealand