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Referencing: Print, Online & Media Resources: Books

The following information is for print books. For e-books, see the tab above. 

APA Style

Reference: Author Last name, Initials. (Year). Title. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: Carson, N.R. (1998). Psychology of behaviour. London: Allyn & Bacon.


  • Author Last name (Year)    
  • (Author Last name, Year)


  • Carson (1998) argues
  • Another approach (Carson, 1998) highlighted….

Books with multiple authors follow the same pattern. 

Source: UCD Library

Harvard Style

Reference: Author/Editor Last name, Initials. (Year) Title. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher.

Example: McLeskey, J. (2013) Inclusion: effective practice for all students? 2nd edn. London: Pearson.


  • Author Last name (Year)
  • (Author Last name, Year)


  • According to McLeskey (2013)
  • As has been argued (McLeskey, 2013)

Source: UCD Library

MHRA Style

There are two styles of MHRA referencing - footnotes/bibliography style and author/date style. This guide covers notes/bibliography style. For more information on both types of styles please see information here from the Univeristy of St. Andrews, and here from the MHRA style guide online. 


Right click + open image in new tab to see a larger version. 

Source: Swansea University

MLA Style

Reference: Author Last name, First name. Title. Publisher, Year of Publication. 

Example: McDonagh, Sean. Why are we Deaf to the Cry of the Earth? Veritas, 2001.


  • (Author Last name Page no)
  • (Page no)


  • In another study (McDonagh 80)….
  • McDonagh has discussed (80)….

Note: In the full reference/Works Cited section, list the author's name as it appears in the work, i.e. last name and full first name or last name and initials.

Source: UCD Library

Chicago Style - NOTE

Please note that there are two style of Chicago referencing: author/date style and notes/bibliography style. This guide covers notes/bibliography style. 

Chicago Style

In-Text Citation: Use a superscript number (like this: ¹) in the text at the place where you are indicating that you are citing from a source.

Footnote: #. Author's First name Last name, Title of Book (Place of publication: Publisher, Year of publication), page. 

Bibliography: Author’s Last name, First name. Title: Subtitle. Edition. Place of publication: Publisher, date of publication.


In-Text Citation: "There is a consistently high correlation between the voting patterns of parents and the eventual voting patterns of their children, as demonstrated by Miller and Hastings."²

Footnote:  2. Kathleen Thelen, How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), 271.

NOTE: When a source is referenced more than once on the same page a shortened form of footnote is used after the first reference, as seen below.

Second footnote: 3. Thelan, How Institutions Evolve, 271.

Bibliography: Thelen, Kathleen. How Institutions Evolve: The Political Economy of Skills in Germany. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Source: UCD Library